Training material V
Treatment of carcinoma of pancreas head and carcinoma of ampulla
如探查胰头癌己有广泛转移而无法切除时，可考虑施行胆总管空肠 Roux-y 吻合术，从而解除病人的黄疸问题，减少病人的痛苦和延长病人的生存期，如胆总管已有癌肿侵犯，胆囊又无法保留，则应给予肝总管切开置入T型管引流术。如术中证实无远处转移，病灶尚可活动，应考虑施行胰十二指肠切除术，但应根据以下情况进行选择。
1、黄疸病人因肝功能受到一定损害，凝血机制往往不佳，术前注射 GS、Vc、Vk1 和辅酶Q10等改善肝功能和凝血机能，促进出、凝血时间恢复正常，以免术中、术后出血，如有重度黄疸或合并胆道感染高烧者，应分期手术，即第一次开腹探查行胆囊造瘘术，或胆总管切开T型管引流术，待2-3周后黄疸消退，再行根治性切除手术。
2、老年体弱、贫血和低量白血症的病人，应适当输新鲜血，有助于凝血机制的改善, 口服胰酶类助消化药物。 配血400ml x 3以备术中应用 。
7、术前静滴20% Albumin 50 ml。
胰十二指肠切除术式有以下几种，供手术时选择釆用：whipple 法 Child法 Cattel 法。
1、决定能否做胰十二指肠切除术的关键问题有二：（1）胰头后面与腔静脉、腹主动脉之间有无癌肿浸润现象。 （2）胰腺后面与门静脉和肠系膜上静脉之间有无癌肿浸润。 若其中之一有癌肿浸润时，则不适应做胰十二指肠切除术。
3、禁食, 持续胃肠减压，静滴 5% GS 和补充电解质、Vc、VB、Vk1 等，一般持续 4-5天，，待肠鸣音恢复后，拔除胃管开始进流质饮食。
5、为了促进创口早期愈合，术后间隔补充血浆或全血，或 20% Albumin 50 ml。
First of all, cholecystectomy should be performed. At the same time of cholecystectomy, the size, extent and periphery of lesions in common bile duct and pancreatic head should be explored, as well as whether there is adhesion invasion with large blood vessels. In addition, the para-aortic lymph nodes should also be explored. According to the surgical exploration, decide the surgical operation and surgical method.
If extensive metastasis of carcinoma in the head of pancreas cannot be resected during exploration, Roux-y choledochojejunal anastomosis can be considered, in order to relieve the patient’s jaundice, reduce the patient’s pain and prolong the patient’s survival time. If there is invasion of common bile duct carcinoma and the gallbladder cannot be preserved, T-tube drainage through incision of common hepatic duct should be performed. If it is confirmed during surgery that there is no distant metastasis and the lesion is still mobile, pancreaticoduodenectomy should be considered, but the choice should be made according to the following circumstances.
All patients diagnosed with periampullary cancer and without clinical contraindication to surgery, should strive to a surgical resection. If the patient has severe jaundice for a long time and has poor general condition and cannot tolerate the primary operation, the secondary resection can be performed. However, the second-stage operation may be difficult due to abdominal adhesion or cancer metastasis fixation.
- Patients with jaundice suffer from certain damage to liver function and often suffer from poor clotting mechanism. Pre-operative injection of GS, Vc, Vk1 and coenzyme Q10 can improve liver function and clotting function, promote bleeding and restore clotting time to normal so as to avoid intraoperative and postoperative bleeding. In case of severe jaundice or patients with concurrent biliary tract infection and high fever, staged operation should be performed, i.e., the first laparotomy and fistulization of gallbladder or T-tube drainage of common bile duct incision. After the jaundice disappears two to three weeks, radical resection should be performed.
- the elderly, weak, anemia and low volume of patients with hyperlipidemia, should be appropriate to lose new blood, help to improve the clotting mechanism, oral trypsin digestive drugs. Blood matching 400ml x 3 for intraoperative application.
- in order to prevent and treat biliary tract infection, injection of broad-spectrum antibiotics, etc.
- one day before surgery with blood 400mmlx3, for intraoperative application.
- preoperative anesthesia department consultation should be invited, please anesthesiologists according to the specific situation of the patient to choose the types and methods of anesthesia.
- preoperative should explain the condition with the patient’s family and the necessity of surgery, and surgery, postoperative complications may occur, and even the possibility of death, after obtaining full consent and with signature, can consider surgery.
- Intravenous 20% Albumin 50 ml is given before operation.
Problem about surgical procedures of pancreaticoduodenectomy:
Pancreaticoduodenectomy is a complicated procedure with great surgical difficulty and many intraoperative and postoperative complications, but it can be summarized into the following procedures.
First, after entering the abdominal cavity, we first need to explore whether there is distant metastasis and local mobility of the tumor, and whether the primary tumor of cancer comes from the head of pancreas.
Second, if the primary tumor of cancer comes from the head of pancreas, we should try to separate it and finally determine whether the cancer can be removed. At the same time, we need to further check whether there is any substantial infiltration between the cancer and vena cava, abdominal aorta, portal vein and superior mesenteric vein, so as to finally determine whether the tumor can be removed. If it is determined that the cancer can be completely removed, we will start to cut off the common hepatic duct, stomach, pancreas and jejunum.
Third, resection of the lesion, and finally cut off the uncinate process, the lesion resection.
Fourthly, the digestive tract is reconstructed by anastomosis between pancreas, gallbladder, stomach or gallbladder, pancreas, stomach and jejunum in that order. There are several types of pancreaticoduodenectomy, and the whipple method, Child method and Cattel method are optional for operation.
Precautions of pancreaticoduodenectomy:
- Two key issues determine whether or not pancreatoduodenectomy can be performed: (i) Whether there is cancer infiltration between the posterior part of pancreatic head and vena cava and abdominal aorta. (ii) There is no cancer infiltration between the back of pancreas and portal vein and superior mesenteric vein. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is not appropriate if one of them has invasion.
- processing of pancreatic head, small vein between the body and superior mesenteric vein, should be cut off after ligation, in order to avoid bleeding, such as once bleeding, should immediately with finger pressure bleeding point, and the upper and lower ends of the superior mesenteric vein, absorb blood, see the damage location, accurate clamping hemostasis, do not blind clamp damage.
- the scope of gastric resection, generally in 1/3-1/2.
- Pancreatic fistula is the most dangerous complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Its incidence is very high (about 20%-30%). Once it occurs, it is often life-threatening. Preventive measures must be strengthened to reduce the occurrence of this complication.
- such as stable blood pressure after surgery, desirable half a lie.
- The abdominal drainage tube was connected with a metering bottle, and the 24-hour drainage volume was recorded and observed. If no other special circumstances occurred, the drainage tube was generally removed 5-7 days after surgery.
- Fasting, continuous gastrointestinal decompression, intravenous drip of 5% GS and supplement of electrolytes, Vc, VB, and Vk1, etc., generally for 4 to 5 days. After the borborygmus recovers, the gastric tube is removed and the fluid diet is started.
- the application of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
- To promote early wound healing, plasma or whole blood, or 20% Albumin 50 ml was added at intervals after surgery.
- pay attention to oral care, encourage patients to make effective cough, and to assist patients with continuous expectoration, in order to prevent combined pleurisy and pulmonary infection or atelectasis and other complications.
- within a week after surgery to closely observe the presence of peritonitis, if there is any peritonitis, should be given timely drainage.
3、腹腔内感染。腹腔内感染也是一种严重的并发症，一旦发生，应首先采取保守治疗。如有脓肿形成，应给予及时的手术引流，除应给予抗菌素治疗外还应给于输血，或血浆，或 20% Albumin。
- Pancreatic fistula occurs more than 5 to 7 days after operation. The patient suffers from abdominal pain, abdominal distension, high fever, scleral yellowing and increased drainage volume. The occurrence of pancreatic fistula should be considered. Conservative treatment is usually adopted after the occurrence of pancreatic fistula, but supportive therapy must be given.
- Internal bleeding. Abdominal bleeding occurs occasionally, and can be treated with hemostasis, blood transfusion, etc. If there is active bleeding, and the conservative treatment is ineffective, reoperation shall be performed to stop bleeding.
- Intra-abdominal infection. Intra-abdominal infection is also a serious complication that should be treated conservatively first. If an abscess is formed, prompt surgical drainage should be given and, in addition to antibiotic therapy, blood transfusion or plasma, or 20% Albumin.
- biliary fistula, rarely occurs, once occurs, should be fully drainage and supplement of nutrient solution in vitro.